“. . . they received the word with all readiness, and searched the Scriptures daily to find out whether these things were so” – Acts 17:11b


There is a lot of misunderstanding and outright deception in our world today. This is a sign of the times in which we live. The Bible says, “Now the Spirit expressly says that in the latter times some will depart from the faith, giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons, speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their own conscience seared with a hot iron” (1 Timothy 4:1-2). In latter times, people will be inclined away from the faith or truth of scripture. They will be inclined to give heed to deceiving spirits and teachings from the pit of hell. There will be great hypocrisy and consciences will be insensitive and dulled. How can we get through to such lost people? The Spirit will lead us.

When the Spirit works to save a person He uses reason to communicate the gospel. The Spirit uses believers to communicate to the sinner that it is reasonable to accept the gospel. In Acts, when the Apostles journeyed from place to place, the reasoning took on a specific character.

The Spirit Led Reasoning Ministry – Explaining, Demonstrating, Persuading Patiently

Acts 17:3 – “explaining and demonstrating that the Christ had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and saying, “This Jesus whom I preach to you is the Christ.”

The two characteristics of a ministry of reasoning are explaining and demonstrating. The word “explaining” is translated from the Greek term DIANOIGO (Strong’s # 1272 – dee-an-oy´-go) and means, “to open thoroughly, . . . to expound; open.”[1] The grammatical from of the word here (Present/Active/Participle) conveys the thought of an ongoing and patient work. The word “demonstrating” comes from the Greek term PARATHEMEA (Strong’s # 3908 – par-at-ith´-ay-mee) which means, “to place alongside, i.e. present (food, truth); . . . allege, commend, commit (the keeping of), put forth, set before.” [2]   The form of this word (Present/Middle/Participle) also conveys the idea of an ongoing, consistent, patient work.

The need for patience in reasoning

When Paul wrote to Timothy in his last epistle he was inspired to exhort him to use patience in reasoning with those who had either strayed from the faith or were lost in their sin. Paul was inspired to say:

  • 2 Timothy 2:24-26 – “And a servant of the Lord must not quarrel but be gentle to all, able to teach, patient,25 in humility correcting those who are in opposition, if God perhaps will grant them repentance, so that they may know the truth,26 and that they may come to their senses and escape the snare of the devil, having been taken captive by him to do his will.”

It can be difficult at times to patiently explain, demonstrate and persuade people in the ministry of reasoning. Sometimes we can become proudly haughty and impatient thinking to ourselves, “How come they don’t see this, it’s as clear as night and day?” We are tempted to get short tempters with people and have a take-it-or-leave-it attitude. That is not how Jesus reasoned with others and with us and that is not how we should respond to others either (Matthew 18:21-35).

James the half-brother of Jesus wrote about the need for patience in waiting for Jesus’ return as well as in ministry and the Christian life generally when he was inspired to write:

  • James 5:7-11 – “Therefore be patient, brethren, until the coming of the Lord. See how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, waiting patiently for it until it receives the early and latter rain.8 You also be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand.9 Do not grumble against one another, brethren, lest you be condemned. Behold, the Judge is standing at the door!10 My brethren, take the prophets, who spoke in the name of the Lord, as an example of suffering and patience.11 Indeed we count them blessed who endure. You have heard of the perseverance of Job and seen the end intended by the Lord—that the Lord is very compassionate and merciful.”

One of the aspects of the loving fruit of the Spirit is patience (Galatians 5:22-23). We cannot explain, demonstrate, and persuade people reasonably in our own strength, we need to rely upon the Holy Spirit to enable us to do so.

The Spirit Focuses His Reasoning on Three Primary Truths

Acts 17:2-3 – “Then Paul, as his custom was, went in to them, and for three Sabbaths reasoned with them from the Scriptures,3 explaining and demonstrating that the Christ had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and saying, “This Jesus whom I preach to you is the Christ.”

When we look at how the Spirit moved Paul to reason with these people we see that the Spirit led him to focus his reasoning presentation on three primary truths. These three primary truths were:

  1. Christ had to suffer.
  2. Christ had to rise from the dead.
  3. Jesus is the Christ

Let’s take a moment to reason together about these three truths.

First, why did Jesus have to suffer? The suffering of Jesus points us to the cross of Christ. Jesus, according to the Scriptures, had to suffer the cross for the following reasons:

  1. Humanity is sinful and cannot atone or save themselves from their sin, not even by keeping the Law (Genesis 3; Romans 3; Galatians 3:10-12; James 2:10).
  2. The wages or consequence of sin is a curse, physical and spiritual eternal death (Ezekiel 18:4; Luke 16:19-31; Romans 6:23; 8:22; Galatians 3:10-12).
  3. Sin also creates a barrier between humanity and God (Isaiah 59:2).
  4. God is Holy and Just and cannot simply dismiss or overlook sin but must remain true to His nature and deal with sin justly (Deuteronomy 32:4; Isaiah 45:21; Revelation 15:3). Therefore, God ordained that the just and righteous means for sin to be dealt with is by way of a sacrificial substitute. The substitutionary atonement was foreshadowed in the Old Testament sacrificial system and fulfilled in Jesus Christ on the cross (Psalm 85:10-11; 145:17; Zechariah 9:9; 1 Peter 1:18-19; Hebrews 10). Indeed, God was in Christ and reconciled the world to Himself by giving His only Son Jesus in this sacrificial way (Romans 3:21-26; 2 Corinthians 5:19). Jesus had to die to pay the penalty of death and satisfy God’s righteous justice.
  5. For humanity to be saved from their sinful state and for God and humanity to have a relationship, sin must be dealt with. Jesus, the perfect sinless Man, suffered in our place on the cross to bear the penalty of sin which is death for us as our substitute to open the door to having a relationship with God (Isaiah 53:4-6; Romans 5; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 3:10-13).
  6. The suffering of Jesus Christ is the faithful fulfillment of God’s prophetic word (Isaiah 53; Psalm 22). Jesus said He would die on the cross and if He didn’t He would be a false prophet (Deuteronomy 18:21-22; Matthew 16:21; 17:12; 20:17-19; Mark 8:31; Luke 9:22

Second, why did Jesus have to rise from the dead? The resurrection of Jesus is God’s sign that He accepted the death of sinless Jesus on the cross as atonement for the sins of the world which satisfied God’s just requirements. The Bible says that Jesus had to rise from the dead because:

  1. The resurrection of Jesus was foretold in the Bible and therefore He had to rise from the dead to show God’s faithfulness to His word (Psalm 16:10-11; Acts 13:34-35).
  2. Jesus said He would rise from the dead and therefore if He did not rise from the dead as He said, He would be a false prophet (Deuteronomy 18:21-22; Matthew 16:21; Mark 8:31; 9:9-10; Luke 9:22; 24:25-27, 45-49; John 2:19-22).
  3. The resurrection is God’s sign of accepting the atonement of Jesus as satisfactory to His just requirements. If Jesus hadn’t been raised from the dead, it would have indicated His atoning work was not accepted by God and we would still be in our sin as well as false prophets because we proclaim Him (Romans 4:25; 8:34; 1 Corinthians 15:12-19).
  4. The resurrection is God’s evidence in Christ of His power over sin and death (John 10:18; Acts 2:24; Romans 8:11; 1 Corinthians 15:54-58; Philippians 3:10).

Third, why is Jesus the Christ? Jesus is the Christ because He is the One and the only One who fulfilled the work of the cross and the resurrection as foretold in Scripture. Jesus is the Christ according to Scripture because:

  1. Jesus fulfilled the prophetic signs of Messiah (He fulfilled over 300 prophetic requirements given by God to identify Messiah, e.g. His virgin birth – Isaiah 7:14 and Matthew 1:18-25; His place of birth – Micah 5:2 and Matthew 2:1; His deity – Isaiah 9:6 and John 1:1-2, 14,18; 20:28-29; Romans 9:5; Hebrews 1:8; His being the Passover Lamb of God – Exodus 12 and John 1:29, 35-37; 1 Corinthians 5:7).
  2. Jesus came to Jerusalem at the exact time God said Messiah would come (Daniel 9:24-27 and Mark 1:15; Luke 19:28-29, 41-44).
  3. “Christ” means “anointed” (Strong’s # 5547) and refers to Jesus as the anointed One who is designated by God to save the world from sin. Jesus is the Savior of the world (John 3:16; Titus 3:5-6; 2 Peter 2:20; 1 John 2:1-2; 4:14).
  4. Jesus is the Christ because He performed miracles just as the Old Testament said Messiah would (Isaiah 35:5-6; Matthew 11:4-5).
  5. Jesus is the Christ, the Savior because it is in Him that sins are forgiven, and lives changed (John 3:1-8; Acts 9; 2 Timothy 1:12-14; 2 Corinthians 5:17).

Jesus’ atoning death on the cross, His resurrection from the dead and that He is the anointed Messiah, the Savior of the world are the three things the Spirit points us to focus upon when we seek to be used by Him to reason with others.

The Reasonable Response

Acts 17:4 – “And some of them were persuaded; and a great multitude of the devout Greeks, and not a few of the leading women, joined Paul and Silas.”

The objective of such a reasoning ministry is that those listening be “persuaded.” “Persuaded” comes from the Greek term PEITHO (Strong’s # 3982 – pi´-tho) meaning, “to convince (by argument, true or false); . . . agree, assure, believe, have confidence, be (wax) confident, make friend, obey, persuade, trust, yield.” [3]

Explaining, demonstrating, and persuading people with Spirit directed and empowered reasoning is something we need to take time to do. We need to be willing to make time to be used by the Spirit in this way. There is no rushing through reasoning with the lost the way the Spirit would have us do. And when we patiently reason in the Spirit with people in this way, there will be a fruitful harvest (Matthew 9:37-38; John 15:1-11; Galatians 6:9).

Really, when the Spirit reasons with a person, the evidence for the truth of God in Christ is so overwhelming to the objective listener, that the only reasonable response is to fall on your knees before God and repent.  If a person listens to the Spirit the only way they can reject the reasonable truth of God is if they willfully reject it despite reason. In effect it is unreasonable to reject the gospel and reasonable to accept it. Sin is the reason people reject the gospel, not intellectual reasoning.

When we reason with the lost in the enabling of the Spirit, they will often give their hearts to Jesus. But sometimes they will not. God allows for the free will decision of humanity. Our faithful calling is to share the gospel in a reasonable way and trust the harvest to the Spirit.

The Product of the Spirit’s Reasoning – “These who have turned the world upside down”

Acts 17:5-9 – “But the Jews who were not persuaded, becoming envious, took some of the evil men from the marketplace, and gathering a mob, set all the city in an uproar and attacked the house of Jason, and sought to bring them out to the people.6 But when they did not find them, they dragged Jason and some brethren to the rulers of the city, crying out, “These who have turned the world upside down have come here too.7 “Jason has harbored them, and these are all acting contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying there is another king—Jesus.”8 And they troubled the crowd and the rulers of the city when they heard these things.9 So when they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go.”

“Envy” as a tool of the enemy against the work of God (17:5). That is what we see motivating those who had not been persuaded by the Spirit’s reasoning, Jews who went out and commandeered some hoodlums (i.e. “evil men”) to stir up a riot against the disciples. They then went to Jason’s house who they knew had harbored the disciples. Jason must have been a known Christian in the community which speaks well of his testimony. The accusation brought against the disciples was that they acted “contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying there is another king – Jesus” (17:7). Citizens of Rome were required to proclaim their allegiance to Rome and in particular Caesar. Many a believer gave their lives because they would not acknowledge that Caesar was their lord but that they had only one Lord, Jesus. The disciples were being charged as insurrectionists who defied Caesar. Jason and others were let go after they posted bail (17:8).

But it appears the disciples were making their mark on the world as they were empowered by the Spirit. This is seen in how they were referred to, as “These who have turned the world upside down” (17:6). They were known and were making an impact in the Spirit. Are you known as a Christian and are you making an impact in the world around you?

Jesus said that the one who is well trained would be like their teacher (Luke 6:40). If the Spirit is training you, you will be like Jesus in your reasoning. Jesus ruffled religious feathers at times (Matthew 23). At other times He could be very sensitive and gentle (John 8:1-11). It cannot be doubted that He made an impact on those with whom He came into contact. You couldn’t meet Jesus without being put in a decision-making situation. When you met Jesus, the nature of His reasoning brought you to a place where you needed to decide whether you were going to follow Him or reject Him (Matthew 19:16-22). Jesus turned the world right side up. Are you like your Teacher?

We know from Paul’s letter to the church started at Thessalonica that they did become like their teacher Paul whose Teacher was Jesus. Paul wrote of them:

  • 1 Thessalonians 1:5-10 – “For our gospel did not come to you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit and in much assurance, as you know what kind of men we were among you for your sake.6 And you became followers of us and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit,7 so that you became examples to all in Macedonia and Achaia who believe.8 For from you the word of the Lord has sounded forth, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place. Your faith toward God has gone out, so that we do not need to say anything.9 For they themselves declare concerning us what manner of entry we had to you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God,10 and to wait for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, even Jesus who delivers us from the wrath to come.”

The Thessalonians gave themselves to the Lord to reason with others at some point and were used by Him to turn their part of the world around.

How about you; what is your reputation amongst the unsaved? Are you known as one who “turns the world upside down” (i.e. right side up in Christ)? Do people feel the presence of the Lord through you? Do they feel comfortable or uncomfortable telling a coarse or dirty joke around you? Do they know better than to include you in a sinful scheme, or are you the first person they go to for input on how to undermine others? Is the Lord making a difference in people’s lives through you or do those around you not even know that you’re a Christian? Are you a Christian complacently incognito or are you courageously reasoning in the Spirit from the scriptures speaking the truth in love with those around you? Are you like the Thessalonians, or are you a just-leave-me-alone-ian? I want to exhort and encourage you to turn to the Lord and ask Him to empower you, to baptize you with the Holy Spirit for service. One way to see that you are used by the Holy Spirit to turn the world upside down is to follow the example of the Bereans in the following verses/

The Spirit Reasons According to His Revelation – The Bereans

Acts 17:10-15 – “Then the brethren immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Berea. When they arrived, they went into the synagogue of the Jews.11 These were more fair-minded than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness, and searched the Scriptures daily to find out whether these things were so.12 Therefore many of them believed, and also not a few of the Greeks, prominent women as well as men.13 But when the Jews from Thessalonica learned that the word of God was preached by Paul at Berea, they came there also and stirred up the crowds.14 Then immediately the brethren sent Paul away, to go to the sea; but both Silas and Timothy remained there.15 So those who conducted Paul brought him to Athens; and receiving a command for Silas and Timothy to come to him with all speed, they departed.”

The name “Berea” means well-watered. The Bible speaks of being pure hearted and sanctified or set apart for the Lord’s use, “with the washing of the water by the word” (Ephesians 5:26). When we look at the Bereans we gain insight and a valuable truth about the reasoning used by the Holy Spirit. The Bereans based their reasoning on the revelation of God’s word. The Spirit’s reasoning is based on His revelation in the word of God.

The Bereans are referred to as “fair minded” (17:11a). The words “fair-minded” come from the Greek term EUGENES (Strong’s # 2104 – yoog-en´-ace;) meaning “well born, i.e. . . . high in rank, or . . . generous: — more noble, nobleman.” [4] The word “noble” means, “possessing outstanding qualities.” Therefore we can say, the Spirit’s outstanding source of reasoning is the revelation of God’s word.

What made the Bereans nobler, more outstanding reasoners than others? What outstanding qualities did they have? Keep in mind that the Bereans had yet to be saved when they were described in this passage. They would accept Jesus as Savior, but their noble attitude is a product of the Holy Spirit working in them to draw them to Jesus (e.g. John 16:8-11). All that we see here is a product of the work of the Holy Spirit. The Berean spirit is a product of the Spirit working in the Bereans.

There were two outstanding qualities of these Bereans.

First, the Bereans’ outstanding quality was that they “received the word with readiness” (17:11b).  The word “readiness” here is translated from the Greek term PROTHUMEA (Strong’s # 4288 proth-oo-mee´-ah) which means, “predisposition, . . . forwardness of mind, readiness (of mind), ready (willing) mind.”[5] The idea conveyed by this word is that the Bereans had a zealous and eager spirit to receive the message of the word of God; they looked to receive revelation from God in His word. This is an outstanding quality to have and cultivate in the Spirit.

The Bible exhorts us to eagerly take in God’s word as a source of truth and revelation in the following verses:

  • Psalm 25:9 – “The humble He guides in justice, And the humble He teaches His way.” 
  • Proverbs 2:1-5 – “My son, if you receive my words, And treasure my commands within you,2 So that you incline your ear to wisdom, And apply your heart to understanding;3 Yes, if you cry out for discernment, And lift up your voice for understanding,4 If you seek her as silver, And search for her as for hidden treasures;5 Then you will understand the fear of the Lord, And find the knowledge of God.”
  • Proverbs 4:20-22 – “My son, give attention to my words; Incline your ear to my sayings.21 Do not let them depart from your eyes; Keep them in the midst of your heart;22 For they are life to those who find them, And health to all their flesh.”
  • Matthew 13:23 – “But he who received seed on the good ground is he who hears the word and understands it, who indeed bears fruit and produces: some a hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty.”
  • 1 Thessalonians 2:13 – “For this reason we also thank God without ceasing, because when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which also effectively works in you who believe.”
  • James 1:21-25 – “Therefore lay aside all filthiness and overflow of wickedness, and receive with meekness the implanted word, which is able to save your souls.22 But be doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving yourselves.23 For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man observing his natural face in a mirror;24 for he observes himself, goes away, and immediately forgets what kind of man he was.25 But he who looks into the perfect law of liberty and continues in it, and is not a forgetful hearer but a doer of the work, this one will be blessed in what he does.”

These verses are all the product of the work of the Holy Spirit. The Spirit inspired the word of God, which is profitable for teaching, proving truth, correcting those who stray from the truth, and instructing people in the way of truth, all so that the person of God can be compete and thoroughly equipped for every good work the Lord calls them to (2 Timothy 3:16-17). There is no substitute for God’s word and its consumption by the disciple if one is to grow in their walk with the Spirit. Our reasoning must be based on the revelation of the Spirit in God’s word.

Second, the Bereans’ outstanding quality was that they “searched the scriptures” (17:11c).  The Bereans actively and vigorously searched the scriptures.  The word “searched” comes from the Greek term ANAKRINO (Strong’s # 350 – which means to examine (Acts 4:9. 12:19. 24:8. 28:18. Luke 23:14. 1 Corinthians 9:3); to judge (1 Corinthians 2:15, 15. 4:3, 3, 4. 14:24); to ask questions (1 Corinthians 10:25, 27); to search (Acts 17:11); and to discern (1 Corinthians 2:14).  The grammatical form of this word (Present/Active/Participle) also indicates a persistent ongoing action. The idea, therefore, is to continuously, habitually, persistently investigate, examine, scrutinize, sift, and look into. (See Psalm 1:1-3; 119:18, 97-100; Isaiah 8:20; Daniel 9:2; John 5:39; 2 Timothy 2:15; 3:16-17).

Third, the Bereans’ outstanding quality was that They searched the scriptures daily” (17:11d).  These Bereans had a holy habit of daily looking into the Scriptures. This is an outstanding quality to have and conveys the idea of consistency and perseverance, not to mention it shows a love for God’s word! (See Joshua 1; Nehemiah 8:18; Luke 11:3; 21:36). Perhaps they rose in the morning and searched the scriptures or during the day and at night, they were people of God’s word who loved the word of God so much they just couldn’t get enough of it. Listen to the psalmist’s words:

  • Psalm 119:47,48,97,113,119,127,159,163,167 – “And I will delight myself in Your commandments, Which I love.48 My hands also I will lift up to Your commandments, Which I love, And I will meditate on Your statutes. . .. 97 Oh, how I love Your law! It is my meditation all the day. . .. 113 I hate the double-minded, But I love Your law. . .. 119 You put away all the wicked of the earth like dross; Therefore I love Your testimonies. . .. 127 Therefore I love Your commandments More than gold, yes, than fine gold! . . . 159 Consider how I love Your precepts; Revive me, O Lord, according to Your lovingkindness. . .. 163 I hate and abhor lying, But I love Your law. 167 My soul keeps Your testimonies, And I love them exceedingly.”

The Bereans had a love for God’s word that drew them to it daily and for every purpose and circumstance in life.

Fourth, the Bereans’ outstanding quality was that they had a purpose for searching the scriptures which was, “To find out whether these things were so” (17:11e).  These Bereans were outstanding because they did not simply leave the interpretation of truth up to the one teaching but went to Gods’ word to verify and scrutinize and prove whether God agreed with what was being said. They took personal responsibility for their spiritual lives and did not lazily entrust to others (2 Corinthians 11:3-4; 1 Thessalonians 5:21; 2 Peter 1:19-21).

A.T. Robertson notes that the Bereans “were eagerly interested in the new message of Paul and Silas but they wanted to see it for themselves. What a noble attitude. Paul’s preaching made Bible students of them. The duty of private interpretation is thus made plain (Hovey)” (Word Pictures, vol. 3, p. 275).[6]

The Bereans had outstanding qualities that we should copy in the Spirit. Now you might have thought at some point, “How come a letter was not written to the Bereans and put in the New Testament Canon?” Well, first, just because a letter is not found in the New Testament Canon addressed to the Bereans does not mean Paul or another apostle never wrote them one, it simply means no inspired letter was written to them. But secondly, it may be that the Bereans and their outstanding nature to search the Scriptures led them in such a way that a letter of correction was not needed. If you look at the New Testament letters to the churches they are often motivated by the need to correct some problem. Perhaps the absence of such a correcting letter is a testimony to the solid Scriptural lives the Bereans lived.

The Bible is a book that is loved by millions. Do you have a love for God’s Word? How much do you love it? As much as a blind person would? Let me illustrate. A young blind girl in France was given a copy of Mark’s Gospel in Braille. As she read and re-read the book, she came to faith in Christ and the book became more precious to her, every time she read it. She read it so much though; that she developed massive callouses on her fingertips. Eventually the callouses prevented her from feeling the raised dots of the braille. But this young girl was so determined to read God’s Word that she decided to cut the callouses and peel the skin back, she was hoping to make her fingers more sensitive. As you might imagine she permanently damaged the nerve endings on her fingers. She could feel nothing in her fingers any longer. She was devastated not so much about her fingers; she was devastated because now she couldn’t read the book. She picked up the book and decided that she would kiss it farewell because she loved it so much. And when the pages of the book touched her lips, she discovered that her lips were more sensitive than her fingers. The Poor blind girl was so overjoyed that she had her book back that she stayed up all night and read God’s Word with her lips. The next time you read the word, hold it to your lips and kiss it and thank God for it.

The Holy Spirit draws people to Jesus by reasoning with them. The prime instrument used by the Spirit to draw people to Jesus is, the Scriptures. Even if someone rejects the Bible, it does not deter us. Whether or not someone accepts or rejects the Bible doesn’t change the fact that it is living, active, and powerful. If you have an apologetic bent go ahead and provide the skeptic the many solid proofs of the authority and inspiration of scripture. But do use the scripture to minister to the lost and to all people. The Holy Spirit uses the word of God to draw people. Sometimes He draws the skeptic through his efforts to refute the word of God. The Holy Spirit creates in people a desire to search the scriptures to see if things like the gospel are so. Don’t hesitate to use God’s word in ministry. Be a Berean and encourage others to be Bereans too.

[1]James Strong, New Strong’s dictionary of Hebrew and Greek words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[2]James Strong, New Strong’s dictionary of Hebrew and Greek words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[3]James Strong, New Strong’s dictionary of Hebrew and Greek words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[4]James Strong, New Strong’s dictionary of Hebrew and Greek words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[5]James Strong, New Strong’s dictionary of Hebrew and Greek words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[6]Jerome H. Smith, editor, The new treasury of scripture knowledge [computer file], electronic edition of the revised edition of The treasury of scripture knowledge, Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1992 by Jerome H. Smith.

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