“The poison of asps is under their lips” – Romans 3:13


The deadliest snake on earth is not the Black Mamba or King Cobra, but the lesser-known Inland Taipan, or Fierce Snake. This snake is six feet long and found in inland Australia. The venom of the Inland in one bite is deadly enough to kill one hundred adults and two hundred thousand mice! Cancel my vacation to Aussie Land! Thankfully incidents of being bitten by the Fierce Snake are rare and anti-venom treatments have been proven successful. But before an anti-venom solution to the bite could be found, the venom itself had to be examined. [1] Did you know, despite what herpetologists say, there is an even worse venom. Sin is the venom of Satan the snake. There is no worse venom on earth and there is only one anti-venom solution, Jesus.

In the opening lines of Paul’s letter to the Romans he says, “I am a debtor” (1:14). Paul felt that the good news of God’s gospel of grace and salvation in Christ, was so incredibly powerful that it would be criminal to hold it back from those snake bitten by sin. Therefore, the powerful gracious love of Christ that he personally experienced when Jesus saved him, compelled him to share the gospel (2 Corinthians 5:14-15). It is with a similar sense of debt and love for sinful people that I share this message.

The Poison and the Antidote

Toward the end of Paul’s section in Romans that tells us “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23), he also states, “The poison of asps is under their lips” (Romans 3:13). Paul quotes Psalm 140 where the complete quote is, “They sharpen their tongues like a serpent; the poison of asps is under their lips” (Psalm 140:3). Psalm 140 is a Psalm of David, a cry of his for God to deliver him from evil people. Evil is like the venom of a snake. It’s an apt illustration for sin.

What is the framework used by Paul to share this powerful revelation of God? He begins with identifying the poison that has been injected into humanity. In the words of the ancient church father Jerome:

“You cannot understand the antidote until you first understand the poison.”

While we would rather preach and teach about the love of God, the wrath of God is part of God’s character and gospel truth. The holy justice of God results in the wrath of God on sinful injustices. Without God’s wrath on sin, God would cease to be holy and loving. A God who condones or casts a blind eye on sin, is neither loving to the victims or just and powerful to maintain His law. Therefore, Paul begins his inspired words on the gospel of Christ by showing the shameful sinful state of humanity and why salvation is needed.

Four reasons Paul wrote to the Church in Rome.

The four purposes for Paul writing his letter to Rome lay out for us the problem of sin and its antidote.

First Paul says, “For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ” (1:16a). Paul would not shrink back in shame because some did not receive the gospel. He was not inhibited by peer pressure or public denunciations by his enemies. He cared more about serving God and Christ’s opinions than the opinions and opposition of people.

Second Paul says, “For it is the power of God to salvation for everyone” (1:16b). The good news is that the gospel of Christ is God’s powerful tool to save people from their sins and empower them to live righteous lives. And that includes every sin mentioned in this epistle. The power of the gospel of Christ is able to deliver from all sins. I encourage anyone struggling with the sins found in Romans 1:18-32 to get alone with God, take a Bible, turn to Romans, and begin to prayerfully read through those first eight chapters. Do it over and over again. There’s a message there for you that can change your life for the better. Don’t stop until you find it. Don’t stop until you find the Savior Jesus. He’s waiting for you.

Third Paul says, “For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith” (1:17). The gospel of God is received by faith and lived by faith. “Righteousness” (dikaioisune) refers to, “the character or quality of being right or just;” it was formerly spelled “rightwiseness.” Righteousness refers to the right way things are to be done, the ideal, the right way to live before God. When “righteousness” is used to refer to an attribute of God it is equated with God’s faithfulness or truthfulness (Romans 3:25-26). God is “righteous” in that He is faithful, consistent with His word, and He keeps His promises. [i] Turn from your sins to Jesus. Receive God’s forgiveness for your sins based on Jesus’ atoning death for you (cf. 2 Corinthians 5:21). Experience God’s new life offered when you put your faith in Jesus. Dot that, trust in Him by faith, and be freed from the bondage of sin.

When we talk about the righteousness of God, we mean the highest, most holy, just, and good standard of what is right. Since God is the highest and holiest of all, so is His righteous standard of governing the universe. God cannot simply overlook or dismiss sin; to do so would tarnish and contradict His righteousness and justice. God’s righteousness, His faithfulness to His word, holds the universe in order. Pagan gods are capricious; they are not faithful to their word. But the God of the Bible is righteous and true. You can depend on God and His word. That is a source of great security and comfort. And the order of the universe is based on God’s standard of justice.

There is a penalty, a “wage” for sin that God’s righteousness has set forth, and that is “death” (Romans 6:23). All those who sin are deserving of death according to God’s standard. This is because of the destructive and pain producing nature of sin. Sin is not only an afront to God, but also a victimizer and brutalizer of those who it effects. Such rebellion, pain and suffering righteously deserves to be punished. But God’s punishment is not only punitive, but it is also a solution to pain producing sin. God will not allow sin in heaven because it would wreck heaven. We’ve already seen the damage the first sin caused. God wont’ allow that to happen in His heaven.

The dilemma then becomes, how can, how does, a righteous God reconcile sinful humanity to Himself and still maintain His righteousness, His justice? The answer to that is laid out for us in Romans. Summarily, we see that all humanity is sinful (Romans 1-3:18), the solution to our problem is the substitutionary atoning death of Jesus on the cross and His validating triumphant resurrection (Romans 3:18-32). The effect of Jesus atoning death and resurrection is appropriated to the sinner through faith that is by nature repentant (Romans 4-5). Jesus and the life indwelled and aided by the Holy Spirit frees us from the bondage of sin (Romans 6-8). We receive this deliverance by faith, and we live it out by faith.

Fourth Paul says, “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness unrighteousness” (1:18). For those who have not received the gospel of Christ by faith, the wrath of God is revealed and coming against them. This is reason for urgency so that these people can be saved. Those who willfully reject God’s revelation of Himself and His offer of salvation from sin, relegate themselves to depraved consequences enforced by God. What we see in Romans 1:18-32 is only the beginning of God’s wrath. Gods’ wrath ultimately climaxes in a Lake of Fire (Revelation 20). It’s a frightening possible destiny.

Legalizing Sin

An anonymous writer has said, “Man’s laws cannot make moral what God has declared immoral. Even if a sin is legalized, it’s still a sin in God’s eyes.” As we study Romans 1:18-32 we need to keep these words in mind. Secular humanity has gone full force toward legalizing lifestyles that God calls immoral. A human law does not alter what God declares sinful for those who worship at His altar. Rather than going along with the prophets of Baal, we ought to be an army of Elijahs standing up to declare God’s truth inn every facet of human life. Then, once sin is declared and opportunity is given to be convicted of sin and repentant, forgiveness of sins through faith in Christ, the powerful gospel, should be shared for the humbled soul.

Sin and Human Responsibility

What is sin? The Greek term hamartia that is translated “sin” in scripture, has a literal meaning of missing the mark. “John Wesley defined sin as a willful and intentional turning away from God’s will and a rejection of His love and grace.” [2] Sin is a willful transgression against a known law of God. Sin involves a choice, a decision, and that implies a real capacity to assess and choose to either obey or disobey the LORD.

Responsibility. Even in a worldly fallen legal system a person is not held accountable for their actions if they do not have the capacity to choose. If a person has a mental or psychological impediment and they commit a crime, their condition is taken into account, and they are sentenced accordingly. A physical adult who thinks like a child because of a delay of some kind is not held to the same standard of justice and accountability as an adult who thinks according to their age. Culpability is connected to mental capacity. A person is culpable or blame worthy, accountable only if they have the capacity to make decisions.

God in His word connects human responsibility in His definition of sin. Jesus said sin starts in the heart (Matthew 5:28). James said much the same (James 1:14-15). God warned Cane that sin was by nature a disobedient action based on what is known (Genesis 4:7). In the New Testament it describes sin in terms of choices made:  Galatians 6:7–8 (NKJV) – Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. For he who sows to his flesh will of the flesh reap corruption, but he who sows to the Spirit will of the Spirit reap everlasting life.” Human responsibility is clearly a part of what sin is: James 4:17 (NKJV) – Therefore, to him who knows to do good and does not do it, to him it is sin.” This implies human beings have the capacity to know and choose between right and wrong. This is the image of God created in them (Genesis 1:26). This is the conscience God built into every person (Romans 2:12-16).

Sin is spiritually deadly because it separates the sinner from their Creator (Isaiah 59:1-2; 1 John 3:4-10). And what further makes sin deadly is that is enslaves the sinner. Unlike a bite from the Fierce Snake, the one bit by sin, craves more of the venom. Jesus said: John 8:34 (NKJV) – 34 Jesus answered them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, whoever commits sin is a slave of sin.” The venom of sin is therefore doubly dangerous.

The nature of the sinful venom. What even further makes the bite of sin deadly is that it is self-inflicted. Romans 1:18 – 3:18 provide us arguably the clearest and most comprehensive definition of sin in the Bible. This definition is pictured in verbs which describe the actions individuals make. The Greek verb includes three voices. These three voices in the verb tell us the following: Active voice – refers to an action an individual does; Middle voice – action that simply occurs with a neutral conveyance of responsibility; and Passive voice – an action that is done to the individual by another. The reason this is important is because, when we look at the verbs used to describe the state of those headed for God’s just wrath, the voice of the verb speaks to the responsibility of the subject of the verb. What do we see in Romans 1:18-32 when it comes to the verbs and the voice forms used to describe sinners in this passage?

  1. “Suppress the truth in unrighteousness” (1:18)– “Suppress” – Greek katechonion – Present/Active/Participle of verb katecho.
  2. “they knew God” (1:21) – “Knew” – Greek ginontes – Aorist /Active/Participle
  3. “they did not glorify Him as God” (1:21) – “glorify” – Greek edoxasan – Aorist/Active/Indicative.
  4. “nor were thankful” (1:21) – “Thankful” – Greek eucharistasan – Aorist/Active/Indicative.
  5. “became foolish” (1:21) – Greek emataiothasan – Aorist/ Passive/Indicative, i.e., god made them or gave them the consequential foolishness due to their sinful choices.
  6. “Professing to be wise” (1:22) – “Professing” – Greek phaskontes – Present/Active/Participle.
  7. “became fools” (1:22) – Greek emoranthesan – Aorist/Passive/Indicative, i.e., God enforced their becoming fools as a consequence to their rejection of God and His truth.
  8. “and changed” (1:23) – Greek ellexan – Aorist/Active/Indicative. They actively changed or exchanged God’s incorruptible glory into a lesser glory of corruptible human beings as animals (e.g., evolutionary theory).

In these few verses we see human responsibility and God’s sovereign enforcement of the consequences of sinful choices. The active voice verbs demonstrate a decision and action by the sinner. The passive verbs indicate God’s sovereign enforcement of the consequences for the sinners’ sinful decisions.

God’s Wrath on Ungodliness and Unrighteousness Revealed

 Romans 1:18 – “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,” 

Some would say that the concept of God as wrathful contradicts God’s love. But God would not be loving if He stood by and allowed His creation to degenerate into sinful anarchy. Sin brings pain, suffering, broken relationships, and overall chaos. The love of God is out to stem the tide of sin and its effects. It’s as though the venom of sin is so terrible that it must be removed so that it will no longer endanger people. There is a snake so evil it enjoys biting its victims. And there are others who align with the snake to provide him victims. They willfully reject any antidote provided by God and relish the dizzying self-worshipping effects of the snake’s bite. In this sense the words of scripture are worth quoting which state, “The whole world is under the sway of the wicked one” (1 John 5:19). Think of it this way. If you were a parent and saw a venomous snake sneaking up on your child, you’d take a shovel to that snake and cut off its head. You’d want to protect your child from its bite. If you were a parent and you saw your child being abused by someone, because of your love for your child you could not and would not stand by and allow the abuse to continue. No, you would intervene and do so with righteous indignation and wrath. On a higher and more holy level this is true of God.


What is “wrath”?

The word “wrath” occurs ten (10) times in Romans (1:18; 2:5,8; 3:5; 4:15; 5:9; 9:22; 12:19; 13:4,5). The word “wrath” is translated from the Greek term ORGE which has the meaning of, “violent passion; ire; justifiable abhorrence; “anger, indignation, vengeance, wrath.” [iii] ORGE originally referred to any “natural impulse, or desire, or disposition.” It later came to signify “anger,” as the strongest of all passions. [iv]

“The wrath of God is revealed” – God’s wrath is revealed (i.e. unveiled; disclosed) in various places in the Bible such as:  the Flood – Genesis 6-9; Sodom and Gomorrah – Genesis 19; The complaining Israelites – Numbers 30:10-13; The unfaithful Judahites – 2 Kings 22:13; Jeremiah 4:4; 44:22; The cross – On the cross Jesus bore God’s wrath that was due us, the sinner – Isaiah 53:12; Romans 5:6-19.

“Against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men” – Sinners are both ungodly and unrighteous and God’s wrath is revealed against these aspects of the sinner. Both ungodliness and unrighteousness are interrelated.

“Ungodliness” – Godliness is relating properly to God. Godliness is the vertical plane of life as it relates to God. Ungodliness is not relating properly to God. Therefore, ungodliness is the violation of the first four of the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1-11 – Have no other gods before Me; Do not make carved images; Do not take God’s name in vain; Remember the Sabbath).

“Unrighteousness”Righteousness is relating to people properly. Righteousness is the horizontal plane of life as it relates to people. Unrighteousness is not relating properly to people. Therefore, unrighteousness is violating the last six of the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:12-17 – Honor father and mother; Do not murder; Do not commit adultery; Do not steal; Do not bear false witness; Do not covet).

Godliness and righteousness are related and connected. You cannot get your horizontal righteous relationships with people right until you get your vertical godly relationship with God right. If you get the vertical godly relationship with God right, you will relate to people rightly on the horizontal plane. Before a person can get their vertical relationship with God right, they must realize it is wrong and sinful.

“Who suppress the truth in unrighteousness” – Those who refuse to receive the gospel by faith degenerate in their sin to the point where they not only turn away from God’s truth, but also “suppress” or hold back the gospel truth about God’s righteousness. By withholding the truth from others, they are acting unrighteously toward others. This is very different from Paul who expressed his indebtedness to share the gospel (Romans 1:15). This is what we will see toward the end of Romans 1.

The word, “suppress” means, “to hold down (fast), . . ., withhold.” [v] We have already shown that such suppression is a willful action based on the Active Voice of the verb. Suppression of the truth leads to the downfall of those doing it. Suppressing the truth is willfully disregarding; willfully hiding from the truth. Suppressing the truth is knowing the truth, but choosing to reject, deny and work against it. The weight of suppressing God’s truth will inevitably bring down those who do so. And what makes this suppression even more severely sinful is that it is willful. As we saw above, the verb “suppress” refers to an action taken by the suppressor.

The Fatal Bite of Sin

A story is told of a man who purchased a white mouse to use as food for his pet snake. He dropped the unsuspecting mouse into the snake’s glass cage, where the snake was sleeping in a bed of sawdust. The tiny mouse had a serious problem on his hands. At any moment he could be swallowed alive. Obviously, the mouse needed to come up with a brilliant plan. What did the terrified creature do? He quickly set up work covering the snake with sawdust chips until it was completely buried. With that, the mouse apparently thought he had solved his problem. But the truth of the situation was that sawdust chips wouldn’t hold back the snake. The solution to the mouse’s problem came from outside of the cage. The man looked down at the plight of the mouse and took pity on him lifting him out. In the same way, no matter how we try to deny our sinful plight by covering up the truth of our need, in the end the snake of sin will fatally bite us.

God has revealed His righteous plan of redemption from sin through faith in Christ and no matter how we try to suppress or hold down the truth that we are sinners and need a Savior, this truth cannot be denied. The only way to be saved from sin is to turn to the One outside the cage of this fallen world, God in Christ by the Spirit. If we continue to reject and hold down God’s truth, sin will fatally bite us, (Satan the snake is waiting – Genesis 3; Revelation 12:9; 20:2). That fatal bite of sin is what is described in the remaining verses of Romans 1.

The Downward Spiral of Sin

From this point on in Romans 1 we will see an ever-deeper downward spiral in sin of those who willfully choose to reject God. The downward spiral of sin occurs in the following way:

    1. REJECTION OF GOD’S REVEALED TRUTH – The rejection of God’s manifesting revelation of His truth (Natural and Biblical revelation) – 1:19-20
    2. REJECTION OF GOD HIMSELF – Refusing to glorify or thank God for His provisions, rejecting God’s salvation plan – 1:21
    3. FALSE SELF-APPRAISAL – False profession and foolish claim to wisdom apart from God – 1:22
    4. IDOLATRY – Create a “God” that is palatable and acceptable to one’s own personal opinion; create a “God” that condones your sin – 1:23
    5. UNCLEANNESS – God gives them over to follow their heart lusts – 1:24
    6. THE LIE – The original sin (Genesiss 3). Belief that one doesn’t need God and is self-sufficient – 1:25a
    7. SELF-WORSHIP – The worship of “me” – 1:25b
    8. VILE PASSIONS – Unnatural and self-destructive desires – 1:26-27
    9. DEBASED MIND – The corruption of one’s thoughts and beliefs – 1:28-31.
    10. ADVOCACY OF EVIL – Not only doing evil oneself, but encouraging others to do evil also – 1:32

This is the downward spiral of sin that is started with what might seem a harmless rejection of a truth of God in favor of a personal opinion, but then the spiral begins and unless the sinner turns to God through faith in Christ, the end will be destruction and death (Romans 6:23). Sinner is like cancer that starts off with the malignancy of one small cell, but then proliferates and if left untreated will take over the body and kill it. Understanding the seriousness of the sin problem is the first step in grasping the greatness of God’s grace toward humanity.

On June 26th, 2015, same-sex marriage was legalized. There were many in churches who viewed such a development with a live-and-let-live attitude. After all, what someone does on their own has nothing to do with us right? There were those who felt homosexuality was unfairly singled out as a particularly heinous sin while other sins were just as bad. Those who were more familiar with the nature of sin warned that with the approval of same-sex marriage and homosexual/lesbian lifestyles in general, that it would lead to the opening of the floodgates of sin. And this has proven to be true.

We are living out the downward spiral of sin. Since 2015 and the legalizing of same-sex marriage, we see the following actions proliferating:

States are passing laws to allow Gender X on Birth Certificates.

  • “Drag Queens” or transgender representatives are reading books to preschoolers in public Libraries and to young children in public schools that promote their lifestyles.
  • Gender Neutral Clothing lines for children are becoming increasingly popular.
  • Transgender men who identify as women are using women’s bathrooms.
  • Transgender boys are competing and winning in girls’ sports and even Beauty Pageants.
  • More Church Denominations are accepting Transgender and Same-Sex Unions.
  • Teenagers are experiencing a gender identity crisis. Depression among our youth is at an all-time high. Suicide rates among the gender confused are proliferating.
  • Transgender Bruce Jenner was awarded with Time’s Person (Women) of the Year.
  • Transgender children are receiving hormones at younger and younger ages.
  • Legislation is being drafted and passed that makes “mis-gendering” or calling someone by a different gender than they identify as, a crime.

All of this in a few short years! Sin never isolates, it always proliferates. Sin is like cancer; it grows and spreads. Literally, all hell is breaking loose it seems. We need to be ready and unashamed. We need to take a stand for if we don’t, the world we wake up to is going too far different, in a bad way, than we have ever imagined or feared.

What does the Bible say about those who advocate evil? The following verses pronounce a clear condemnation upon such people:

Proverbs 17:15 – “He who justifies the wicked, and he who condemns the just, both of them alike are an abomination to the Lord.”

Isaiah 5:20 – “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil; Who put darkness for light, and light for darkness; Who put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!”

Malachi 2:17 – “You have wearied the Lord with your words; Yet you say, “In what way have we wearied Him?” In that you say, “Everyone who does evil Is good in the sight of the Lord, And He delights in them,” Or, “Where is the God of justice?”

Clearly those who advocate evil and that which opposes God and His word are abominable to Him.

Alternative lifestyles defined by an ever-widening abbreviations such LGBTQ etc. are representative of psychosexual chaos in the area of gender identification in our world today. It seems that with the approval of same-sex marriage the flood gates were opened and now just about anything goes. Pedophiles are seeking to be included in the LGBTQ community as a normalized alternative lifestyle. No longer is a male and female sex identified based on physical genitalia. But today the relativism run wild has infected the psyches of those given to abnormal sexual proclivities and confusion is the resultant norm. All of this is the consequence of leaving the tried-and-true absolute truth of God’s word. God’s word clearly and profoundly states God created humanity “male and female.” When you leave the truth of God’s word, confusion reigns.

What is sadder is that, while the Church should be taking a stand against such madness it too often is endorsing it. The Church of England has long ago added a baptismal service for those proclaiming their transgenderism in order to celebrate it![vi] The United Methodist Church, the church of John Wesley, has split over the gender issue. Much of the Church has been caught up in this downward spiral of sin. Rather than standing strong in the storm and being a light in the darkness to guide people in truth, the Church is approving and spreading the darkness! The Church is turning of God’s light! The Church has become the darkness!

This has been a much-abused portion of scripture. It has been abused by those who twist it in such a way to condone their sins. This portion of scripture has also been twisted by some who use it to spew hatred. Both groups are equally off the mark.

Those who would twist the statements of Paul to allow for same sex relationships say things like Paul is speaking to a particular sinful group of same sex attracted people, not to same sex attracted people generally. But the context is creation and human history overall, not a select group. This downward spiral and its parts are a universal principle. The statements by Paul are unmistakable no matter what linguistic gymnastics are attempted to be forced on the passage.

You may have settled for a relationship with God calls sinful, and you may be “happy” in that relationship. Sinful people are not always bad people. There are “passing pleasures of sin” (Hebrews 11:25). But eventually the consequences for sinful choices will come to bear (Galatians 6:7-9). Sinful people can do good things. But the one who settles or defies God’s word to follow a sinful road always settles for less than God’s best. Their final destiny is separate from the One Who Created them and loves them. God does not prohibit things for His creation to be mean or hateful, He prohibits things that are harmful to them because He loves them. That is the truth.

To those who would use this passage to spew hatred, understand that for something we do to be worth anything, it must be done in love. No one profits when love is left out of the life equation (cf. 1 Corinthians 13). Yes, God’s Church is to be “the pillar and ground of the truth” (1 Timothy 3:15). But for that truth to be effectively applied in an eternally redemptive way, we must speak God’s truth in love (Ephesians 4:15). The fruit of the Spirit is love (Galatians 5:22-24). The Holy Spirit pours out His love in our hearts (Romans 5:5). We can’t leave the Spirit behind in our march to uphold God’s truth. That would be futile. That would be ineffective. For God to be glorified we must minister in truth and love. Love is truthful just as Jesus is truthful (John 18:37). We are to be sanctified, set apart and distinctively associated with God in truth, the truth of God’s word (John 17:17). But we are also to be known by God’s love (John 13:35). In effect, we are to love people into God’s kingdom.

So, do not legitimize people’s accusations of being a “hater.” Instead, “Sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear; having a good conscience, that when they defame you as evildoers, those who revile your good conduct in Christ may be ashamed. For it is better, if it is the will of God, to suffer for doing good than for doing evil” (1 Peter 3:15-17). Yes, love them into the kingdom with a truth filled loving gospel message.

Sin is most deadly venom known to humanity. We suffer from the venom of sin every day. But God has identified and dissected this venom and provided an antidote in Jesus. Maybe you are experiencing the painful effects of the venom of sin right now. I encourage you to turn to Jesus and know the One Who has the antidote to what’s bitten you. That there is an antidote is good news. That it is offered freely as a gift of God is great news. That you can receive it now by faith is the best news for which you could ever hope. In Jesus’ name. Amen!



[1] The 9 Deadliest Snakes in the World, by Tara MacIsaac, 2/18/2014. The Epoch Times https://www.theepochtimes.com/article/9-deadliest-snakes-in-the-world-516441?utm_medium=GoogleAds&utm_source=PerfmaxM&utm_campaign=PM_max_Speaker_1024&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI–XV4-KohAMVmVFHAR3CggCEEAAYASAAEgLXuPD_BwE

[2] https://home.snu.edu/~hculbert/sin.htm

[i]W.E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger and William White, Vine’s complete expository dictionary of Old and New Testament words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[ii] John r. W. Stott, the Cross of Christ, (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press) 1986. p. 105

[iii]James Strong, New Strong’s dictionary of Hebrew and Greek words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[iv]W.E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger and William White, Vine’s complete expository dictionary of Old and New Testament words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[v]James Strong, New Strong’s dictionary of Hebrew and Greek words [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1996.

[vi] https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/11/church-england-offer-baptism-style-services-transgender-people/


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